The 2005 Protocol amending the 1990 Agreement, which extended the 1990 agreement for a period of 15 years, was concluded; and the 2005 Defence Cooperation Agreement (DCA), which consolidated existing defence cooperation activities and provided for new areas of mutually beneficial military, military and technological cooperation. These two agreements protect American interests in the Middle East, help the Iraqi people to remain alone and strengthen Iraqi sovereignty. Singapore and the United States already have a strong defence relationship. The city-state provided logistical support to U.S. military aircraft and ships in the region as part of the 1990 agreement and the 2005 Strategic Framework Agreement. Singapore intervened to support a U.S. military presence after the closure of U.S. bases in the Philippines in 1991, supported U.S. efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and was the first Southeast Asian state to join the U.S.-led Global Coalition to Counter ISIL. DCA was expanded, which provided a new framework for defence relations between Singapore and the United States. The two sides have thus extended (a) defence cooperation in military, political, strategic, technological and unconventional security areas; and b) new areas of unconventional cooperation, including humanitarian and disaster relief, cyber defence, biosecurity and communication. Singapore offers important facilities for the U.S. Navy, including a major logistics component of the U.S.
Pacific Command, and berths for visits to U.S. aircraft carriers and submarines. The United States, on the other hand, hosts long-term training departments of the Republic of Singapore Air Force. Therein lies the fundamental reciprocity of the relationship. The recent DCA partly reflects a natural maturation of bilateral defence relations over time. But it also shows that Singapore`s value as an important operational site in Southeast Asia has intensified as washington seeks a larger, more evenly distributed regional military footprint. This is part of the U.S. « reorientation » to the Asia-Pacific region, which now involves a greater strategic focus on the South China Sea. While the U.S. Navy`s recent freedom of maritime operations has received considerable attention, a more strategic development this year has been a doubling of U.S.
Navy patrols in the South China Sea as a whole. Singapore`s cooperation is essential to these broader efforts to maintain the U.S. Navy`s regional presence, including the provision of facilities for its coastal combat ships (LCS). Although Singapore is not an official ally of the United States (and would in fact have rejected a U.S. offer from non-NATO major Ally Status a decade ago), its defence relations with Washington have become increasingly intimate, particularly in the decade leading up to the signing of the Strategic Framework Agreement in 2005. The alignment between the US Air Force (USAF) and the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF), which is largely equipped with US aircraft, is particularly narrow.